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All presentations are in English unless otherwise noted.

I-1 (T, 1:45pm-2:30pm) - All Levels
The Time Factor in Interpreter Training
Eduardo González (Kearney, Nebraska), assistant professor and head, Translating-Interpreting Section, Department of Modern Languages, University of Nebraska at Kearney

A great deal has been written about the skills and techniques that are most essential in interpreter training. The stress of the simultaneous interpreter, the memory requirements of the consecutive interpreter, as well as the large vocabulary, cultural knowledge, and linguistic competence required by both, are but a few of the aspects dealt with during interpreter training. Very little, if anything, is mentioned about the time factor (time units in the source language that expand in length in the target language) present in legal, medical, conference, interview, and other interpreting settings. In this presentation, an analysis will be made of this important issue. Solutions will be proposed in order to achieve more solid and realistic interpreter training. Although the bulk of examples used will be in the English®Spanish combination (as source and target language, respectively), some of the target-language examples will include French and Russian.

I-2 (T, 2:30pm-3:15pm) - All Levels
Consecutive Interpretation: The Mysterious Interplay Between Notation and Memory
Harry Obst (Arlington, Virginia) director, Inlingua School of Interpretation

How much should an interpreter record on paper and how much should be committed to memory? Among teachers of consecutive interpretation and working interpreters there are widely differing opinions on the proper balance between the two. Empirical observations usually show that interpreters who record too much on paper do not perform very well. Writing too little is often equally counterproductive. What is the right balance? If no general rule applies, can interpreters at least find the proper individual balance? How can they determine what that balance is? This presentation looks at these questions from many different angles and tries to provide some useful answers.

I-3 (T, 3:30pm-4:15pm) - All Levels
Interpreting is Like Solving a Cr _ _ _ w _ _ d P _ _ _ le: Parallel Strategies and Techniques
Nancy Schweda Nicholson (New Castle, Delaware), professor of linguistics and cognitive science, University of Delaware

This presentation suggests that many of the strategies used by crossword puzzle solvers are also employed by interpreters. The building process via piece-by-piece assembly will be highlighted along with other relevant approaches. The speaker, an avid crossword puzzle fan and interpreter trainer, will add some of her personal observations as she illustrates the processing similarities through the use of numerous examples.

[CANCELED] I-4 (T, 4:15pm-5:00pm) - Beginner
The Use of Compromise and Compensation for Translation Problems Involving Cultural Issues
George Guim (San Jose, California), coordinator and instructor, Translation and Interpretation Certificate program, National Hispanic University
Presenting Language: English, with a focus on Spanish translation

This presentation will: 1) discuss the different types of cultural transposition (any degree of departure from purely literal translation) such as exociticism, cultural borrowing, calque, communicative translation, and cultural translation; 2) describe the problem they pose for translators; and 3) discuss compromise and compensation as techniques for dealing with translation problems. Specifically, compensation techniques include compensation in kind, in place, by merging, and by splitting. Although this presentation is mainly geared toward Spanish translators, individuals working in other languages are welcome to attend.

I-5 (F, 10:15am-11:45am) - All Levels
Interpreters Division Annual Meeting
Helen D. Cole (Silver Spring, Maryland), freelance Chinese interpreter/translator and administrator, ATA Interpreters Division

I-6 (F, 1:45pm-2:30pm) - All Levels
The Use of Portable Equipment in Conference Interpreting: When and When Not
Elke Limberger-Katsumi (Pacific Grove, California), freelance translator, conference/court interpreter

Portable simultaneous interpreting equipment (the bidule) can be a useful tool to generate additional work and avert awkward consecutive interpreting situations, but it has its limits. This presentation will highlight what it can and cannot do, and include a short overview of the different types of equipment available. Participants are encouraged to share their experiences.

[CANCELED] I-7 (F, 2:30pm-3:15pm) - Intermediate
Guides to Telephone Interpreting
Silvia E. Lee (Glenside, Pennsylvania), translator and freelance court certified interpreter
Presenting Languages: English and Spanish

Telephone interpreting is a fast-growing industry that is becoming the staple work for a lot of interpreters. The guidelines for telephone interpreting are somewhat different from the ones for live interpreting. This is primarily because neither the interpreter nor the individual with limited English proficiency (LEP) can see each other. An interpreter frequently has to provide some assistance to the English-speaking individual and the LEP, rather than just a straight interpretation. Since this type of interpretation is performed primarily with medical personnel, a little advocacy by the interpreter on behalf of the LEP is permissible. This presentation will cover the guidelines to determine how much assistance and advocacy the interpreter can provide while still remaining within the ethical codes of conduct.

I-8 (F, 3:30pm-5:00pm) - All Levels
A Quality Assurance Model: Update on a Process for Identifying, Training, and Testing Telephone Interpreters
Frances A. Butler (Redondo Beach, California), senior research associate and language testing specialist, Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California at Los Angeles; Thom Hudson (Honolulu, Hawaii), associate professor, Department of Second Language Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa; David B. Sawyer (Monterey, California), assistant professor and German Program head, Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation, Monterey Institute of International Studies; Charles W. Stansfield (North Bethesda, Maryland), president, Second Language Testing, Inc.; Irene Nikolayeva Stone (Thousand Oaks, California), director of Continuing Education, NetworkOmniÒ Multilingual Services; and Jean L. Turner (Monterey, California), associate professor, Graduate School of Languages and Educational Linguistics, Monterey Institute of International Studies

The use of call centers for remote language mediation continues to skyrocket in the wake of globalization, travel, and immigration. Entry-level positions in language mediation are the result of this demand. Committed to quality assurance and industry partnership, NetworkOmniÒ introduced a process for identifying, training, and testing interpreters last year in Los Angeles. This presentation provides an update on this model aimed at qualifying competent bilinguals who have widely ranging skills and backgrounds. Special attention will be given to the design of validation studies addressing construct, content, and predictive validity in training and testing.

[CANCELED] I-9 (F, 3:30pm-4:15pm) - All Levels
The Challenges of Interpreting for Refugee Populations
Janet Erickson-Johnson (Monterey, California), certification manager, Language Line Services

This presentation will deal with the unique and difficult challenges of interpreting in healthcare and other settings for the monolingual speakers of languages that are represented by the refugee populations who have recently arrived in our country. The discussion will cover this issue from both a cultural and linguistic standpoint, not only for the limited English proficient (LEP) speakers, but also for the professional medical community, and from the perspective of developing and implementing certification testing for interpreters of such languages in order to ensure equal access to care and services for these LEP groups.

I-10 (F, 4:15pm-5:00pm) - Intermediate
Telephone Interpreting: A Review of Pros and Cons
Roberto A. Gracia-García, University of Massachusetts Amherst Translation Center - University of Alicante (Spain)

With new legislation on provision of interpreters in hospitals and courts being passed around the U.S., an increasing number of hospital and court administrators are seeing Telephone Interpreting (TI) as the solution to their communication problems with limited-English proficient
citizens and immigrants. While the number of TI service providers grows and the use of TI spreads, TI has also become the subject of mounting controversy. This paper is based on part of the author's research toward a comprehensive MA thesis on Telephone Interpreting. Its main purpose is to serve as a reference tool to help administrators of the above-mentioned agencies and institutions to make an informed decision as to whether Telephone Interpreting is the right method of interlinguistic communication for their language needs. In particular, this paper reviews the pros and cons of this method, especially in its application to the medical setting. The paper also comments on demographics in the U.S., relevant legislation, existing literature, and the future of Telephone Interpreting in connection with the new telecommunication technologies (particularly videoconferencing). Part of the presentation will be devoted to open discussion. Input from attendees with experience in the court and medical settings will be greatly appreciated.

I-11 (S, 8:30am-10:00am) - All Levels
The Third Interlocutor: The Visible Language Interpreter in a Healthcare Setting
Claudia Angelelli (San Diego, California), assistant professor of applied linguistics, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, San Diego State University

While difficult to sustain or explain, the notion of neutrality and transparency are deeply embedded in the professional organizations and schools that educate translators and interpreters. Recent studies of the examination of interpreters at work (Angelelli, 2001; Roy, 2000; Wadesnsjo, 1998) portray interpreters as co-participants in the interpreted communicative event. Using an ethnographical approach, this presentation examines the interpreter's interpersonal role as it becomes visible to both the interlocutors and the observer. At California Hope, a public hospital in the South Bay area, 10 Spanish/English interpreters were observed during 22 months. In the interactions they facilitated, these interpreters gained visibility through text authorship, which they achieved through a variety of communicative strategies. These strategies enabled them to bridge communicative needs, to filter essential information from less important data, to seek and explore answers to questions, and to bridge cultural gaps between healthcare providers and patients.

I-12 (S, 10:15am-11:45am) - Beginner/Intermediate
Nuts and Bolts on Different Types of Interpreting
Helen D. Cole (Silver Spring, Maryland), freelance Chinese interpreter/translator and administrator, ATA Interpreters Division; Tanya Gesse (Chicago, Illinois), U.S. Department of State Russian«English contract conference interpreter; and Michelle A. Scott (Grand Rapids, Michigan), registered nurse and founder and president, Voices For Health, Inc.

Whether it be consecutive or simultaneous interpreting; whether it be in a courtroom, lock-up, attorney's office, conference room, classroom, or in the field; whether it be one-on-one, in front of a microphone, or in a booth… there is art to interpreting.

I-13 (S, 1:45pm-2:30pm) - All Levels
What Can Interpreters Learn from Aristotle and Stanislavsky?
Estela R. Herrera (Buenos Aires, Argentina), certified English®Spanish translator and interpreter

Some interpreters are rated by listeners and speakers as "correct" or "excellent," and others as "great" or "superb." What is the difference? Can only naturally gifted individuals be "superb" interpreters? What are the skills required for superb interpretation? This presentation will review the qualities that are common to interpreters who can appropriately apprehend and convey the nonverbal aspects of the speaker's message. It will also reflect upon the training of interpreters in such skills, drawing on Aristotle's theory and concepts on the art of persuasion (rhetoric) and Stanislavsky's actor training methodology (psychotechnic).

[CANCELED] I-14 (S, 2:30pm-3:15pm) - All Levels
How to Teach Service Professionals How Best to Use Interpreters
Sara Koopman (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Spanish interpreter and translator

Have you ever interpreted for someone who speaks strangely loud and slow because they're using an interpreter? How about a super-fast speaker who seems to never pause? We've all had someone who insists on speaking in the third person. This presentation will review ways to teach attorneys, doctors, and other service professionals how to better use our services. Participants will learn methods they can use on a case by case basis, in addition to receiving material they can use to give a general presentation to a group, such as a law school class or a bar association continuing education seminar.

I-15 (S, 3:30pm-5:00pm) - Beginner/Intermediate
Teach Your Client (How to Work With an Interpreter)
Maria McCollum-Rye (Lavergne, Tennessee), owner and project manager, Spenworld
Presenting Language: Spanish

This workshop will include valuable information and tips on how to teach interpreters/translators to educate their clientele in order to gain more respect and understanding of the art of interpreting and translating techniques. It will combine a lecture, group participation, and skill-building practice for everyone interested in learning more about the following topics: an interpreter's code of ethics; modes of interpreting; and effective intervention and management of a session.

New I-16 (T, 4:15pm-5:00pm) - All Levels
Coming to Terms
Laura E. Wolfson (New York City), RussianÕEnglish interpreter and translator

In a presentation that is more of a literary reading than a conference paper, the author of the popular Miss Interpreter Speaks column will read extracts from a lively and thought-provoking work in progress. Highlights will include meditative and humorous passages on the pleasures and frustrations of working as an interpreter, and on language study. The presenter will share her evolving relationship with particularly puzzling and intriguing words and expressions in her working languages and will discuss how they have served as milestones on an unending journey toward greater cultural understanding.

New I-17 (S, 2:30pm-3:15pm) - All Levels
A Comparative Analysis of the Professionalization of Community Interpreting
Cynthia Miguélez (Alicante, Spain), Universidad de Alicante

Community Interpreting is the fastest growing and most socially significant type of interpreting in the world today. A quick perusal of specialized journals and collections of essays shows the increasing importance being given to this developing field of professional practice.  Given the well-documented need for community interpreters, it is disturbing that those who work in this field have not yet truly gained professional status. Professional status derives from the clear perception on the part of both the practitioners and “consumers” of community interpreting services of the unique skills and preparation needed to ensure the quality in interpreting. Quality interpreting is what community settings require, and that quality depends on appropriate training, working conditions, compensation, and quality control methods. These and other issues related to “professionalization” will be explored in this presentation using a comparative approach that focuses on the current practices in several European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Spain, Belgium) and the United States. The purpose will be to see how several countries are approaching the issue of professionalization, what steps have been taken, the degree of success which has been achieved, and what still remains to be done.

I-17 (S, 8:30am-10:00am) - ALL
Interpretation Equipment: A Demonstration and Training

Frederick Baysinger, director, Conference Services and Equipment, ASET International Services Corporation; and H. Randall Morgan, Jr., co-founder, chairman, and CEO of ASET International Services Corporation

In order to differentiate themselves in the marketplace and enhance their revenue, interpreters are becoming increasingly proficient with interpretation equipment and leveraging relationships with equipment providers. Join us for a hands-on demonstration of state-of-the-art simultaneous interpretation technology. This session will provide an overview and training on the various types of systems available on the market, including an in-depth discussion of Philips, Williams Sound, and Listen products, among others. Touch, feel, and program interpreter consoles, transmitters, receivers, infrared radiators, microphones, and various styles of headsets. Attendees will also be able to try out different types of interpreter booths, including the portable tabletop booth and the deluxe Audiopack Interpretation Booth.

(Related Sessions: Preconference Seminars (Seminar A), Strategies for Sight Translation, Consecutive Interpretation, and Note Taking; Japanese (J-2) Experiences with the Japanese®English Court Interpreting Test; Legal Translation and Interpreting (LAW-1), The Concept of Equivalence in Court Interpreting; Medical Translation and Interpreting (MED-2), The NCIHC Forum Series: Listening to Your Voice About a National Code of Ethics; Medical Translation and Interpreting (MED-3), Programs, Politics, and Perseverance: What's New in Healthcare Interpreting in the U.S.; Training and Pedagogy (TP-2), From Consecutive and Simultaneous to Dialogue Interpreting; Training and Pedagogy (TP-3), An Adventure in Online Learning: Introduction to Medical Interpreting; and Training and Pedagogy (TP-5), Interpreter Training and Evaluation: Building a Theoretical Base Using Descriptivist and Corpus-Based Techniques)